Water Resources and Stormwater

The challenges associated with stormwater compliance are numerous. 3e has created an entire department in our company to help our clients navigate the changing regulations and provide program support that help to keep them compliant. Our staff of Professional Engineers (PE), Certified Floodplain Managers (CFM), Landscape Architects (PLA), Certified Nutrient Management Planners (CNMP), Erosion and Sediment Control Inspectors and Plan Reviewers and Stormwater Management Inspectors and Plan Reviewers provide a variety of water resources and stormwater-related services:


  • MS4 Permits, Audits, Compliance and Training
  • High Priority Site evaluation
  • Stormwater Pollution Prevention Planning (SWPPP)
  • Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Action Plans
  • Waste Load Allocation (WLA) evaluation
  • Outfall Inventory Development
  • Land Use Cover Studies and Modeling
  • Best Management Practice (BMP) Identification and Selection
  • Nutrient Management Plan Preparation
  • Illicit Discharge Studies
  • LID & LEED Solutions
  • Site Development
  • Floodplain Management
  • Master Planning
  • Risk and Impact Assessments
  • Erosion and Sediment Control (ESC) Plan Development and Review
  • Stormwater Management Plan Development and Review
  • Stormwater Construction Plan Review
  • Stormwater BMP Design
  • Stormwater Utility Fee Design, Implementation and Ordinance Development
  • Stream Restoration Design
  • Virginia Stormwater Management Plan (VSMP) Program Implementation Support

Relevant Project Experience

City of Hopewell On-Call Contract for Stormwater Compliance and Implementation, Hopewell, VA

3e is currently under contract with the City of Hopewell to provide Stormwater Management Services and for the implementation of their Stormwater Utility Enterprise Fund.  Services that we are providing the City include:

  • Develop MS4 Program Plan/Annual Reporting Template
  • Illicit Discharge, Detection, and Elimination Manual Development and Screening
  • Develop Good Housekeeping/Pollution Prevention Manual
  • Identification of High Priority Facilities
  • Create Construction Site Inspection/Enforcement Program Implementation Tools
  • Develop Post-Construction BMP Inspection and Maintenance Manual
  • Pollution Reduction TMDL Action Plan for Appomattox and James River TMDLs (E. coli)
  • Pollution Reduction TMDL Action Plan for Chesapeake Bay TMDL (Nutrients and Sediment)
  • Stormwater Utility Fee Program Implementation Planning
  • GIS Mapping Support

City of Salem On-Call Contract for Stormwater Compliance and Implementation, Salem, VA

3e provided on-call services that includes the following approved assignments:

  • Developed an MS4 Program Plan and Annual Reporting Workbook explicitly consistent with the requirements of the current General Permit
  • Updated the City’s MS4 Public Education and Outreach Program to support compliance to MCM-1
  • Developed a Training Plan to support compliance with MCM-6 utilizing existing SWPPPs and Illicit Discharge Detection and Elimination written procedures, including initial training session
  • Developed a Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) Implementation Tools (targeted mapping, practice references, and inspection forms) to support compliance with MCM-6
  • Developed of an Operator-Owned Post-Construction Best Management Practice (BMP) Inspection and Maintenance Manual to support compliance to MCM-5
  • Prepared the 2013-2014 MS4 Annual Report for submittal to the Department of Environmental Quality
  • Developed TMDL Action Plans to support compliance with the General Permit’s Special Conditions for Non-Chesapeake Bay TMDLs, specifically the Roanoke (Staunton) River PCB and the Upper Roanoke River Watershed E. Coli and Sediment TMDLs (in process)
  • Developed of a New Program Plan, Good Housekeeping Procedures/Pollution Prevention Manual and Public Outreach Plan 

Stormwater Permit Implementation Support 

3e assisted with the development of the City’s Virginia Stormwater Management Program (VSMP) Ordinance required for submittal to the Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) as part of their local VSMP Application package. Ordinance development including assuring consistency with other Town Code and the integration and consistency of local standards exceeding those required by the VSMP. Additionally, 3e performed compliance evaluations at several Salem maintenance facilities including the streets maintenance facility, the transfer station, and equipment storage areas.  This effort followed the new requirements of Minimum Control Measure (MCM) 6 – Pollution Prevention and Good Housekeeping for Municipal Operations.  As part of the evaluation, 3e determined existing flow pathways, identified potential stormwater pollutant sources, completed an inventory of regulated outfalls, and recommended control measures. Using interviews and visual observations, 3e determined the procedures that are currently in place to comply with MS4 and compile them into usable reference and training materials.  This overall effort resulted in the preparation of a Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan for each of the applicable facilities.

Spill Prevention Planning and Training  

3e assisted with the development of ten Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure Plans for the City of Salem Electrical Department.  The Plans addressed the Main Facility Building, eight emergency generator sites and the Pole Yard.  Following the development of the Plans, 3e prepared and conducted SPCC training for 17 City personnel.  

Town of Christiansburg Water Resources and Stormwater Programs, Christiansburg, VA

3e was retained in 2014 by the Town of Christiansburg for a term contract to provide stormwater design services and develop their stream preservation, restoration, and water resources program.  This 3-year term contract is for stormwater engineering and planning projects within the Town of Christiansburg.  Under this contract, 3e has assisted the Town with the following tasks:

Preparation of Stormwater Local Assistance Fund (SLAF) Application

3e evaluated potential and existing stream restoration projects for the Town and prepared successful SLAF applications for three stream improvement projects for a total matching grant of $664,000.  The evaluations included consideration of necessary stormwater infrastructure improvement and an assessment of the level of impairment.  3e also determined how each project would be incorporated into the Town’s TMDL Action Plans for pollution reduction credit.

Christiansburg Stream Preservation and Stormwater Program

3e assisted the Town in creating a program that facilitated the Town’s goals and objectives with considerations to water quality, MS4 compliance, erosion and sediment control (ESC) regulation, and current and future TMDL issues.  3e coordinated stakeholder engagement through workshops attended by Town Council members, Town citizens, and state regulators.  3e also prepared an evaluation matrix of the Town’s streams and stormwater infrastructure with an accompanying report which assessed the Town’s current conditions and needs of the Town with respect to its future visions. Matrix components included such things as riparian buffers, level of stream impairment, potential for preservation/restoration, and positive impacts to Town-wide stormwater programs.  Results from the evaluation matrix and suggestions from the workshops were ultimately used to create a suite of potential New Capital and Retrofit projects for the Town with suggested prioritizations and researched funding opportunities.

Franklin Street Bridge Stream Bank Stabilization Design Approach

3e performed the Preliminary Jurisdictional Determination for an eroding stream threatening the stability of the Franklin Street Bridge, and also prepared all environmental documentation and permitting.  Additionally, 3e conducted a technical evaluation of a third-party hydrology analysis and stabilization alternatives for the design approach and made recommendations for the Town based on cost effectiveness and the Town’s future planning needs.

Church, Brown, and Lucas Stormwater Management Project

3e conducted wetland delineation and permit coordination to support the civil engineering and survey services to the Town in the vicinity of Brown, Church, and Lucas Streets for planning and design improvements of the existing stormwater infrastructure and stormwater management (SWM) facilities.  Key aspects of the project involved rehabilitation of stormwater drainage features; retrofits of outfall structures; and surface improvements capable of safely passing the 10-year storm without flooding adjacent properties. 

Stormwater Utility Fee Program Facilitation and Development

3e facilitated the development and implementation of the Town's Stormwater utility fee program.  3e served as the facilitator of the Town's Stormwater Stakeholders Committee (SSC), prepared monthly technical presentations to the SSC and provided quantitative analysis of SSC recommendations.  3e coordinated the efforts of the Engineering, Administrative, GIS and Finance departments to effectively coordinate billing and recordkeeping infrastructure. 3e developed public outreach materials, meeting exhibits, technical manuals, guidance documents and participated in the development of the enabling local ordinance.  The fee and resulting enterprise fund was successfully implemented and launched in the summer of 2016.

MS4 Compliance Related Services

3e provided on-call services that includes the following approved assignments:

  • Developed an MS4 Program Plan and Annual Reporting Workbook explicitly consistent with the requirements of the current General Permit
  • Updated the Town’s MS4 Public Education and Outreach Program to support compliance to MCM-1
  • Developed a Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) Implementation Tools (targeted mapping, practice references, and inspection forms) to support compliance with MCM-6
  • Prepared the MS4 Annual Report for submittal to the Department of Environmental Quality
  • Developed TMDL Action Plans to support compliance with the General Permit’s Special Conditions for the sediment TMDL for Crab Creek
  • Developed of a New Program Plan, Good Housekeeping Procedures/Pollution Prevention Manual and Public Outreach Plan

Virginia Community College System Stormwater Services & Other Environmental Services, Statewide, VA

3e has been providing comprehensive environmental engineering services throughout Virginia for the Virginia Community College System (VCCS) under three consecutive Indefinite Delivery contracts for environmental and engineering services. 3e has completed over 808 tasks in nine years with a total value of over $1,000,000 and has completed as many as seven concurrent tasks.

MS-4 Stormwater Management Compliance, Multiple facilities

3e has been helping VCCS with the MS4 stormwater program for about 5 years including the preparation of Stormwater Management Permit registration statements, development of the six required Best Management Practices, mapping of stormwater outfalls, development of educational materials for public outreach, development of stormwater outfall monitoring programs for illicit discharge detection, assessment of existing stormwater structures, evaluation of LID techniques, and training of staff on MS4 compliance. The work has been completed at the following facilities:

  • Piedmont Community College, Charlottesville VA
  • Three Tidewater Community College Campuses in Norfolk, Chesapeake and Virginia Beach VA
  • Central Virginia Community College, Lynchburg VA
  • Training on MS4 compliance for eight campuses across Virginia

Statewide Erosion and Sediment Control Program, 27 college campuses throughout Virginia 

3e developed the VCCS program for the self-regulation of the Virginia Erosion and Sediment Control Program. 3e’s role was to prepare the flow charts and program for preparation, review, and enforcement compliance inspection of E&S plans for all the community college projects throughout the state. 3e reviews all E&S plans for compliance with the MS-19 components, assists with E&S compliance enforcement inspection, provides training of VCCS staff on the E&S program, and provides technical support and specifications for the program.   

Virginia Department of Transportation MS4 Stormwater Management Term Services, Statewide, Virginia

3e was the prime consultant with the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) on a four year $9 million contract to assist with technical support and compliance on its MS4 Permit Program Implementation Plan. More than ninety tasks have been assigned to date.  3e’s work to date has included:

  • MS4, TMDL, and Runoff Reduction Methodology training
  • TMDL watershed characterization and water quality modeling for nine TMDLs
  • Conceptual cost estimate and development of the Chesapeake Bay TMDL Action Plan
  • Identification of BMPs and Action Plans to address wasteload allocations (WLA) for the nine TMDL
  • Investigation and inspection of existing stormwater facilities/BMPs
  • Outfall inventory and IDDE screening
  • Stormwater BMP retrofits
  • Development of E&S plans and standards and specifications
  • Technical support for LID, preparation of MS4 BMP manuals, policies and procedures
  • GIS development, including mobile collection tools used with off-the shelf tablets
  • EPA MS4 compliance assessment support
  • MS4 Annual Report support
  • MS4 Program Compliance Audit
  • TMDL Development and Implementation Technical Assistance
  • Statewide MS4 Program Manual and Protocols
  • Commonwealth-wide TMDL investigations
  • Run-off Reduction Based Criteria Training Workshop
  • BMP Database Development
  • VDOT Outfall and Illicit Discharge Detection Manuals
  • DEQ Stormwater Management Training
  • Recommendations for Rehabilitation and Improvement for VDOT Post-Construction Stormwater BMP’s
  • Effectively communicating with internal and external stakeholders and regulatory agencies 
  • Review and evaluation of all of VDOT’s legal authorities and policies related to stormwater management and VDOT’s MS4 permit 
  • Revised VDOT’s internal form (L&D 445) which is used as the DCR approved registration statement for obtaining coverage under the General Permit for discharge of stormwater from construction related activities
  • Development of a comprehensive stormwater BMP database for more than 1000 stormwater BMPs across the state, including analysis of the type, HUC code, and acreage treated by the BMP
  • Development of an Inspection Manual and checklist for post-construction stormwater management BMP’s
  • Revised inspection and inventory forms in the BMP Inspection Database currently in use to incorporate the new BMP’s in the Clearing House as mandated by revised stormwater regulations
  • Prepared technical documents for the State Attorney General and qualified as expert witness for a lawsuit against the EPA for the Accotink Creek TMDL
  • Development of an O&M Manual for post-construction stormwater management facilities
  • Analysis of the new DCR stormwater regulations and training of staff on the new Virginia Stormwater Program (VMSP) regulations, specifically the Virginia Runoff Reduction Methodology (VRRM) and the energy balance
  • Assisted with revisions to the 2034 and 2014 Annual Standards and Specifications for ESC and SWM
  • Analysis of 26 stormwater TMDLs, including development of compliance programs to achieve the Waste Load Allocations assigned to VDOT by the TMDL.  The work included the Chesapeake Bay TMDL, James River PCB TMDL, and James River fecal coliform TMDL